Stem Cell Therapy
What is Stem Cell Therapy?
Stem cell therapy is a form of regenerative medicine that utilizes the body’s natural healing mechanism to treat various conditions.
Stem cells are being used in regenerative medicine to renew and repair diseased or damaged tissues, and have shown promising results in treatments of various orthopedic, cardiovascular, neuromuscular and autoimmune conditions.
Stem cells are present in all of us, acting like a repair system for the body. However, with increased age sometimes, the necessary amounts of stem cells are not present at the injured area. The goal of stem cell therapy is to amplify the natural repair system of the patient’s body by increasing the numbers of stem cells at injury sites.
Types of Stem Cells
There are several different types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, cord blood stem cells, and amniotic stem cells.
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are stem cells derived from human embryos harvested during in-vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures. They are pluripotent, which means they have the ability to develop into almost any of the various cell types of the body.
As an embryo develops and forms a baby, stem cells are distributed throughout the body, where they reside in specific pockets of each tissue, such as the bone marrow and blood. As we age, these cells function to renew old and worn out tissues and cells. These are called adult stem cells or somatic stem cells. Like embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells can also turn into more than one cell type, but their differentiation is restricted to a limited number of cell types.
Cord blood stem cells are obtained from the umbilical cord after childbirth.
Amniotic stem cells are present in the amniotic fluid that surrounds a baby while inside the womb.
Use of Stem Cells in Orthopedics
The unique self-regeneration and differentiating ability of embryonic stem cells can be used in regenerative medicine. These stem cells can be derived from eggs collected during IVF procedures with informed consent from the patient.
Adult stem cells can be harvested from many areas in the body. These include adipose tissue (fat), bone marrow, and peripheral blood. The mesenchymal stem cell is one type of adult stem cell. These have the ability to turn into cells that form the musculoskeletal system such as tendons, ligaments, and articular cartilage. To obtain mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow, a needle is inserted into the iliac crest of the pelvic bone to extract the stem cells.
Cord blood and amniotic stem cells are easily obtained and frequently used in orthopaedics. There is some thought that these cells themselves do not differentiate into active regenerative cells but rather act to stimulate your body’s own cells to repair damaged tissue.
Currently, stem cell therapy is used to treat various degenerative conditions of the shoulder, knees, hips, and spine. Stem cells are also being used in the treatment of various soft tissue (muscle, ligaments and tendons) as well as bone-related injuries.
Who is a Good Candidate for Stem Cell Therapy?
You may be a good candidate for stem cell therapy if you have been suffering from joint pain and want to improve your quality of life while avoiding complications related to invasive surgical procedures.
Preparing for Stem Cell Therapy
It is important that you stop taking any non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) at least two weeks before your procedure. Preparing for a stem cell procedure is relatively easy and your doctor will give you specific instructions depending on your condition.
Stem Cell Therapy Procedure
The procedure for stem cell therapy varies by the type of stem cell used. In the majority of cases, the cord blood or amniotic stems cells are obtained and prepared in anticipation of the procedure
Your doctor then cleans and numbs your affected area to be treated and then, under the guidance of ultrasound or X-rays, injects the stem cells into the diseased region. The whole procedure usually takes less than one hour and you may return home on the same day of the procedure.
Postoperative Care for Stem Cell Therapy
You will most likely be able to return to work the next day following your procedure. You will need to take it easy and avoid overly stressing the joint for around two weeks following your procedure. You will need to refrain from taking non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) for a while as this can affect the healing process of your body.
Advantages of Stem Cell Therapy
Stem cell therapy is a relatively simple procedure for the patient that has a potential for avoiding some of the disadvantages associated with more invasive surgical procedures.
Disadvantages of Stem Cell Therapy
While there is some encouraging early data, there is a general lack of information about the long-term effects of stem cell therapy as it is a newer procedure and represents a newer form of treatment. There are no guarantees that any particular stem cell therapy will be affective for an individual patient. Given this lack of conclusive evidence, most all insurance companies and Medicare do not cover the costs associated with stem cell therapy.
Risks and Complications of Stem Cell Therapy
Stem cell therapy is generally considered a safe procedure with minimal complications; however, as with any medical procedure, complications can occur.
Some risks factors related to stem cell therapy include infection as bacteria, viruses or other pathogens that can cause disease may be introduced during the preparation process.
The procedure to either remove or inject the cells also has the risk of introducing an infection to the damaged tissue into which they are injected. Rarely, an immune reaction may occur from injected stem cells.